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Exam: 642-321

Vendor Cisco
Certification Cisco Specialist
Exam Code 642-321
Exam Title Cisco Optical SDH Exam
No. of Questions 59
Last Updated Jun 26, 2024
Product Type Q & A with Explanation
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642-321 SDH
Cisco Optical SDH Exam

Exam Description
The Optical SDH exam is one of the two qualifying theater exams available to candidates pursuing the Cisco Optical Specialist certification. This exam is recommended for candidates in Americas, APAC (except Korea), EMEA, and Japan. Test materials covered in the recommended Cisco Optical Specialist curriculum: Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Turn Up, Text, Provisioning, and Operation Training (OSTPO); Cisco ONS 15216 Provisioning and Operation Training (OPODA); and Optical Fundamentals (OF). The exam will certify that the successful candidate has important knowledge and skills necessary to understand the protocols, principles, and underlying technologies of optical systems, such as fiber optic fundamentals, SONET, SDH - emphasis on SDH, DWDM, and optical cross connects. In addition, a Cisco Optical Specialist 1 will be able to design, configure, build, operate, and troubleshoot Cisco optical networking products, (including ONS 15454, & ONS 15216) in METRO/Regional and METRO/Access network environment.

Optical Fundamentals
* Describe Light and Fiber Optic Basics (Characteristics of Light, Properties and Components of Optical Fiber, Reflection, Refraction, and Fiber Types)
* Describe Passive Components of an Optical Network ( What is a Passive Component? and Attenuators)
* Describe Active Components of an Optical Network (Optical Transmitters, Receivers, and Regenerator)
* Explain the Factors that Impact Optical System Design (Optical Power, Optical Power Budget, splicing loss, margin tolerances, Optical Attenuation and Loss, Single Channel Power vs. Composite Power, Dispersion, Other NON-linearities, and Chirp, source modulation technique.)
* Explain signal regeneration (What are the three Rs, What are the two Rs, Signal Regeneration in Real Networks)

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Principles
* Explain Dispersion in DWDM Systems (Harmonics, Measuring Dispersion, Effects of Dispersion on Telecom Signals, Polarization Mode Dispersion, Calculating Dispersion Budget)
* Describe Optical filters [Characteristics of Filters, Types of filters, Thin Film Filters, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)]
* Explain the Characteristics and Structure of Multiplexers (Characteristics of Multiplexers, Structure of an ADD/Drop, Thin Film Multiplexer, Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexer, Arrayed Wave Guide.)
* Compare Types of Lasers and Receivers (Direct modulation, external modulation) for DWDM Transmission
* Describe Optical Amplification Options (Design and understand the Functionality of EDFA, Optical Gain, Building Feedback into an Amplifier, Gain Competition, Raman Amplifiers.)
* Explain OSNR (What is OSNR?, OSNR Calculation in one amplifier, OSNR Calculation in Multiple amplifiers, Limitations due to OSNR.)

Service Provisioning, Operation and Troubleshooting (216 DWDM)
* Describe the components of the ONS 15216 system, supported configurations, and network applications
* Describe the functions and characteristics of the DWDM system created by combining ONS 15454 OC-48 ITU cards and ONS 15216 DWDM filters
* Describe the functions, characteristics, and applications of the ONS 15216 OADMs
* Describe the functions, characteristics, and applications of the ONS 15216 EDFAs
* Describe the functions and characteristics of the ONS 15216 DCU

SDH Principles
* Given various SDH hierarchy levels, compute the bit rates, identify the main protection switching concepts for SNCP, MS-SPRing, and Linear Configurations.
* Compare and contrast SNC and MS-SPRing ring technology (capacity, application, node limiatations, design constraints, traffic flow and APS.)
* Analyze optical characteristics related to SDH Overhead (Identify the SDH overhead bytes at the line, section, and path that directly relate to SDH OAM&P. (SES, APS, etc.)
* Define the information payload and describe it's size, Frame sizing (STM-n), Interleaving vs. Concatenation vs. Scrambling (ITU G.707).
* Describe the methods used to encapsulate E3/E4 into VC-n/STM-n (and possibly E1's into VC-n)
* Troubleshoot Optical Network Problems Related to SDH. Identify the procedure for performing loopback tests to the client and to the network. Given several major failure conditions and their associated alarm indicators, describe how they would affect users, AIS vs LOS alarms, pointer issues, errored seconds, CRC checking, APS Trouble types (see ITU G.707)
* Implement Synchronization Timing in a SDH Network (Describe the synchronization timing modes, Describe Sync Status Messaging (SSM) and Sync. Distribution.
* Explain the key differences and similarites of SDH and SONET (overhead information, multiplexing, payload mapping, protection schemes, synchronization, and performance monitoring.)
* Describe the internetworking principles between SDH and SONET and the method of transporting SDH over SONET (SS bits, DCC, line rate)

Service Provisioning, Operation and Troubleshooting (15454 SDH)
* Describe the procedures for configuring a Cisco ONS 15454 in a Data Communications Network.
* Describe the shelf layout, shelf hardware, and backplane interfaces
* Set the timing parameters in the ONS 15454 from the CTC Timing subtab
* Describe the following protection schemes and their application to the ONS 15454. (1+1 (one plus one) protection, 1:1 (one for one) protection, 1:N (one for "N") protection)
* Identify the following, as applied to an ONS 15454. (Typical point-to-point optical fiber routing, 1+1 protection groups, Typical linear add/drop multiplexer (ADM) configuration optical fiber routing.)
* Describe the procedures for creating circuits and their impact on the crossconnect matrices (VC-12 and VC-4, linear vs. ring)
* Describe the operation and application of ONS 15454 SNCP. [Typical optical fiber routing, SNCP VC protection, Typical signal paths, Automatic protection switching, Major steps required to create a SNCP, SNCP dual node interconnect (Integrated and traditional)]
* Identify a Low Order VC-12 or VC-3 circuit and a VC-4 Low Order tunnel, and how each applies to the ONS 15454
* Describe the operation and application of MS-SPRing's in the ONS 15454 (Typical two-fiber MS-SPRing optical fiber routing, MS-SPRing VC protection, Typical signal paths, Automatic protection switching, Protection channel access, Major steps to create a two-fiber MS-SPRing, Four-fiber MS-SPRing span switching, Four-fiber MS-SPRing ring switching, Two-fiber to four-fiber MS-SPRing upgrade.)
* Describe the Ethernet card types and their application in the ONS 15454
* Identify the major steps needed to add or remove a node to an existing MS-SPRing
* Describe PPMN (Path Protected Mesh Network) in the ONS 15454 and how it compares with SNCP and MS-SPRing
* Describe the protocol and operation of the ONS 15454 DCC and interoperability requirements in a multi-vendor environment


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